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Grandiose Survey of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Beverages

Written by Xu Gan Rong, Bao Tong Fa
HTML Handling by Le Hong Bing
Preface
1 Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
1.1 Different Opinions of Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
1.1.1 Legends of origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
1.1.1.1 Yi Di started brewing of Alcoholic Drinks
1.1.1.2 Du Kong Invented Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks
1.1.1.3 Brewing of alcoholic drinks started in the period of Huang Di -a tribe chief.
1.1.1.4 Alcoholic Drinking Occurred in Harmony with the Existence of the Universe
1.1.2 Origin of Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks Proved by Archaeological Discoveries
1.1.2.1 Pei Ligang Culture Period
1.1.2.2 Homudou Culture Period
1.1.2.3 Ci-shan Culture Period
1.1.2.4 Shang Xiang Dui Relics
1.1.2.5 Da Wen Kou Tomb's Culture Remains of Ling Ying He, Ju County of Shangdong Province
1.1.3 Modern Viewpoints of Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages
1.1.3.1 Alcoholic Beverages Are Natural Products
1.1.3.2 Fruit Wine and Milk Wine°™the First Beverages
1.1.4 Sorts and Origin of Brewing Alcoholic Beverages by using grains
1.1.4.1 Did Brewing of Alcoholic Drinks by Using Grains Start During Agricultural Period or Before It?
1.1.4.2 What Sorts of Chinese Primitive Grain Alcoholic Drinks Were They?
1.1.4.3 Proofs of Production of Beer During Ancient Ages in China.
1.2 Origin of Distilled Spirits
1.2.1 Different Opinions of Origin of Distilled Alcoholic Liquors
1.2.1.1 The Distilled Alcoholic liquor Started in Yuan Dynasty
1.2.1.2 The Distilled Alcoholic Liquor Was Introduced From Abroad In Yuan Dynasty
1.2.1.3 Distilled Alcoholic Liquors occurred in Song Dynasty
1.2.1.4 The Distilled Alcoholic liquor was originated in Tang Dynasty
1.2.1.5 Distilled Alcoholic Liquor Originated in Eastern Han Dynasty
1.2.2 Origin of Distilled Alcohol Liquor Abroad
1.2.3 Names of Ancient Distilled Liquors
2 Jiuqu (Qu), Its Production and Application in Alcoholic Beverages Industry
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Definition
2.1.2 Functions of the Jiuqu
2.1.3 Classification of Jiuqu
2.1.3.1 Rice as raw material
2.1.3.2 Wheat as raw material
2.1.3.3 Bran as raw material
2.2 Historic Development of Jiuqu-making Technique
2.2.1 In Han Dynasty ( 206 B.C.-220 A.D.)
2.2.2 In Northern and Southern Dynasties
2.2.3 From Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) to Song Dynasty ( 960-1279 A.D.)
2.2.4 From Ming Dynasty to Qing Dymasty
2.3 Jiuqu-making Technology
2.3.1 Wheat Qu
2.3.1.1 Traditional wheat Qu production
2.3.1.2 Pure cultured wheat Qu
2.3.2 Da Qu
2.3.3 Xiao Qu
2.3.3.1 Traditional Xiao Qu production
2.3.3.2 Pure cultured XIAO Qu and mixed cultured XIAO Qu
2.3.4 Red Rice ( Ang-kak)
2.3.4.1 Introduction to red rice in general
2.3.4.2 Traditional preparation procedures
2.3.4.3 Pure cultured red rice production
3 Rice Wines in China, Their History, Processes and Products
3.1 Rice wines in General
3.1.1 Introduction
3.1.2 Classification
3.1.2.1 Formal Classification
3.1.2.2 Classification according to the production methods
3.1.2.3 Classifying According to the Sacchrifying and Fermenting Agents Used
3.1.3 Utilization of Rice Wines
3.1.4 Chemical compositions of the rice wines
3.2 Development History of Rice Wine Brewing Technology
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Historical Development of Rice Wine Brewing Technology
3.2.2.1 Rice wine-making Technology before Hang Dynasty (from prehistoric times to 206 B.C.)
3.2.2.2 Rice Wine-making Technology from Hang Dynasty to Northern and Southern Dynasties (the period of 206 B.C.- 581 A.D.)
3.2.2.3 Rice Wine-making Technology from Tang Dynasty (618-907) to Southern Song Dynasty (1127- 1279)
3.2.2.4 Rice Wine-making Technology from Yuan Dynasty (1115 -1368) to Qing Dynasty ( 1644- 1911)
3.2.2.5 Rice Wine-making Technology Since 1911
3.3 Raw Materials and Material Handling in Rice Wine Brewing
3.3.1 Raw Materials for Rice wine Brewing
3.3.1.1 Cereals
3.3.1.2 Water
3.3.2 Pretreatment of Raw Materials
3.3.2.1 Polishing of Rice
3.3.2.2 Washing and Steeping of rice
3.3.2.3 Steaming of Rice
3.3.2.4 Cooling of the Steamed Rice
3.4 Preparation of Seed Mash Used for Ricewine Brewing
3.4.1 Traditional Seed Mash Preparation in Song Dynasty
3.4.2 Traditional Seed Mash Preparation Currently Used in Some Rice Wine Breweries
3.4.2.1 Ingredients for Preparation of Traditional Seed Mash
3.4.2.2 Sacchrification and fermentation
3.4.3 Pure Cultivated Yeasts
3.4.4 Active Instant Dried Yeasts
3.5 Fermentation and Post-fermentation
3.5.1 The characteristics of Rice Wine Fermentation
3.5.1.1 Use of Jiu Qu
3.5.1.2 Parallel Fermentaton
3.5.1.3 Low Temperature Fermentation for a Long Time
3.5.1.4 Semi-solid Fermentation
3.5.1.5 High Content of Ethanol
3.5.2 Traditional Fermentation Processes
3.5.2.1 Temperature Control During Main Fermentation
3.5.2.2 Secondary Fermentation
3.5.2.3 Fed-batch Fermentation
3.5.3 Post-fermentation Treatments
3.5.3.1 Separation of Spent Grains by Squeezing
3.5.3.1.1 The Characters of the Rice Wine Mash
3.5.3.1.2 Squeezing Equipments
3.5.3.2 Clarification
3.5.3.3 Pasteurization
3.5.3.3.1 Batch Pasteurization
3.5.3.3.2 Continuous Pasteurization
3.5.3.4 Aging and Maturation
3.5.3.5 Packaging
3.6 Classical Rice Wine Brewing Processes
3.6.1 Yuan Hong Rice Wine
3.6.2 Jia Fan Rice Wine
3.6.3 San Niang Rice Wine
3.6.4 Xiang Xue Rice Wine
3.6.5 Red-Rice Wine
3.6.6 Glutinous Millet Wine
3.6.7 Sealed-jar Rice Wine
3.6.8 Corn Wine
3.6.9 Qing Ke Jiu (High-land Barley Wine)
3.7 Quality Standard of Rice Wines
3.7.1 Organoleptic Specification
3.7.2 Composition of Rice Wines
4 Chinese Distilled Spirits
4.1 Classification of Modern Chinese Spirits
4.1.1 Classification according to the Qu used
4.1.1.1 Da-Qu spirit
4.1.1.2 Xiao Qu Spirit
4.1.1.3 Fu-Qu Spirit
4.1.1.4 Other types of distilled spirits
4.1.2 Classification according to spirit's aroma and flavour types
4.1.2.1 Maotai-flavor spirit
4.1.2.2 Luzhou-flavor spirit
4.1.2.3 Fen-flavor spirit
4.1.2.4 Rice flavor spirit
4.1.2.5 Other-flavor spirits
4.1.3 Classification according to the production processes
4.1.3.1 Spirits produced by solid-state fermentation
4.1.3.2 Spirits produced by semi-solid state fermentation
4.1.3.3 Spirits produced by liquid state fermentation
4.1.3.4 Spirits produced by solid-state fermented grain combined with liquid or semi-solid state fermented mash
4.1.3.5 Liqueurs
4.1.4 The classification according to the quality
4.1.4.1 National Famous Drinks
4.1.4.2 National Fine- Quality Spirits
4.1.4.3 The Fine Quality Spirits recognized by Provinces and department
4.1.4.4 Normal spirits
4.1.5 Classification according to the alcoholic strength
4.1.5.1 Spirits with high alcohol concent
4.1.5.2 Spirits with low alcohol concent
4.1.6 Classification according to the raw materals
4.2 Traditional Distillers and Distillation Techniques
4.2.1 The distillers in Ancinet Times
4.2.2 Distillation Techniques
4.2.2.1 Distillation in Liquid-state or Solid-state
4.2.2.2 Improvement of the Quality of the Distilled Spirits in Ancient Times
4.3 Technological Achievements in distilled Spirit Production After the Founding of the People's Republic of China
4.3.1 Microbiology and DA-Qu Preparation
4.3.2 Modification of Fermentation Processes
4.3.3 Man-made Fermentation Pits
4.3.4 Improvement of distillation techniques
4.3.5 Development of Low Alcohol Content Spirit
4.3.6 Development of techniques of post-fermentation and post-distillation of spirit's production
4.3.6.1 Study of Flavour Substances in Spirits
4.3.6.2 Blending
4.3.6.3 Aging
4.3.7 Mechanization Production
4.4 Production Techniques For Chinese Spirit
4.4.1 The Process for Rice-spirit ( Xiao-Qu Spirit)
4.4.2 The process for "Fen-flavour Spirit" production
4.4.3 The Process for Luzhou-flavour Spirits
4.4.4 The production process of Maotai spirit
5 Beer and Wine Production in China
5.1 Beer
5.1.1 Li: Primitive Beer in Ancient China
5.1.2 Morden Chinese Brewing Industry
5.1.3 Contemporary Brewing Industry in China
5.1.3.1 The First Period (1949-1978)
5.1.3.2 The Second Period
5.1.3.3 The Third Period (1980-1988)
5.1.3.4 The Fourth Period (1989-present)
5.1.4 National Beer Standard Number:GB 4927-91
5.1.4.1 Quoted Standards:
5.1.4.2 Technological Requirement
5.1.4.3 Beer Qality Guaranteeing Period:
5.2 Wine Production in China
5.2.1 Wine Production in Ancient Times
5.2.2 Methods of Wine-Making in Ancient China
5.2.2. 1 Natural Fermentation
5.2.2.2 Fernentation with Jiuqu
5.2.3 Wine in Modern China
6 Production and Sales of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks and Modern Famous Chinese Alcoholic Drinks.
6.1 Production and Sales of Chinese Alcoholic Drinks.
6.1.1 Production Situation in Recent Years
6.2 The National Famous Alcoholic Drinks
6.2.1 The National Alcoholic Drinks Appraisal Conference held in previous Years
6.2.2 National Famous Alcoholic Drinks and Liquors in the Previous Appraisal Conference
7 Chinese Drinking Vessels
7.1 Ancient Drinking Vessels
7.1.1 Primitive-Aged Drinking Vessels
7.1.2 Drinking Vessels Made of Bronze in Shang and Zhou Dynasties
7.1.3 Paint-coated Drinking Vessels
7.1.4 China Drinking Vessels
7.1.5 Other Drinking Vessels
7.2 Modern-time Drinking Vessels (after Qing Dynasty )
8 Chinese Culture of Drinking
8.1 Historical Stories on Chinese Alcoholic Beverages
8.1.1 Indulgence in Drinks and Lust for Beauties
8.1.2 Reward Armies with A Single Cup of Alcoholic Mash
8.1.3 Handan Was Occupied Because of Kingdom Lou's Inadequate Gift of Alcohol
8.1.4 Hong Men Feast
8.1.5 Emperor Liu Bang, Founder of Han Dynasty, Slaughtered A giant While Snake While Drunk
8.1.6 Wen Jun Sold Alcoholic Drinks
8.1.7 Comments Upon Who Were Heroes While Drinking
8.1.8 Seven Great Minds Nearby Groves of Bamboo
8.1.9 Confucius and Mencius Metaphor Good Alcohol and Inferior One Respectively
8.1.10 Eight Gods Fond of Drinking
8.1.11 A Cup of Alcohol Dismissed Generals' Power of Forces
8.2 Chinese Culture of Drinking Etiquette
8.2.1 Traditional Basis of the Culture of Drinking Alcoholic Beverages--Moralities and Etiquette of Drinking Beverages.
8.2.2 Customs of Drinking Alcoholic Beverages on Big Days
8.2.3 Drinking Beverage Custom on Marriage
8.2.4 On Worship Ceremony to Gods and Ancestors, Funeral Ceremony and Alcoholic Beverages.
8.2. 5 Some Other Customs of Drinking Alcohol Beverages
8.2.6 Peculiar Ways of Drinking the Alcoholic
8.2.7 Ways of Urging Guests to Drink More at Feasts
8.2.8 Drinkers' Wager Game
9 Chinese Administration of Alcoholic Beverages
9.1 Administration of Alcoholic Beverages in Ancient Times
9.1.1 Specialties of Alcoholic Beverages
9.1.2 Detailed Description of Administration of Alcoholic Beverages in Ancient Times
9.2 Administration of Alcoholic Beverages in the Period of of 1911-1949
9.2.1 Beijing Government's Administration of State Monopoly Sale of Alcoholic Beverages.
9.2.2 State Monopoly Sales System of Nanjing Government
9.2.3 Taxing on Alcoholic Beverage Wineries
9.2.4 Collection of Tax on Officially-licensed Firms Doing Deals of Tobacco and Alcoholic Beverages
9.2.5 Tax on Domestically-made Alcoholic Beverages